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Boundary Waters Canoe Area History Center™

1895-1919 History

1895, Loggers
Logging of big pines in future BWCA begins.

1897, Congress
Passes "Organic Act" giving President power to modify executive orders regarding national forests. Regulates cutting practices.

1902, Comm. of U.S. General Land Office
Withdraws 500,000 acres in future BWCA from availability for settlement. (659,700 more acres withdrawn in 1905-08)

1908, Congress
Passes act authorizing Forest Service to manage National Forests.

1909, MN Game and Fish Commission
Establishes 1.2 million acre "Superior Refuge" in same area.

1909, Secretary of Agriculture
Petitions Roosevelt to have withdrawn area designated Superior National Forest (SNF).

1909, Executive
Roosevelt designates withdrawn area the Superior National Forest. (It does not include all the current BWCA.)

1909, State
Declares all minerals under lakes and streams State property.

1911, Congress
Passes "Weeks" Act making possible land acquisition within designated areas.

1915, Congress
Passes Act authorizing Forest Service (USFS) to grant temporary occupancy in National Forests of parcels of less than 80 acres in size for a maximum of 30 years.

1919, Public
Influx of recreationalists into SNF begins to be significant.

1919, Forest Service
Employs Carhart to prepare first plan for SNF usage.

Compiled by H.C. Johnson, M.L. Heinselman, E.M. Sitz.

An outline of Boundary Waters Canoe Area History

Main History Page | 1895-1919 | 1920-1940 | 1941-1958 | 1959-1975 | 1976 | 1977 | 1978 | 1979 | 1980

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Published from the edge of the Boundary Waters
Canoe Area by Chad Jones

Updated Aug 26, 2016

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